Do you want to learn what is Artificial Intelligence and searching over Internet, then this article is made for you. This article is prepared like a Bible, where you get not only information about what is Artificial Intelligence but also get general overview of types of AI, history of AI and how it help us in the future world etc.
Computer is become a valuable asset in our life. Computer is just about everywhere that touches our lives like online learning, banking, business, airlines, railways, weather forecast, medical diagnosis, communications, entertainment etc.
But you know, Computer is just a machine which can simply follow the instructions as given by the programmers, in the same order as the programmer thinks.
The Computer has not any ability to change the programme according to the changing conditions as per requirement of the situations.
So, thanks to God, made us as a powerful and intelligence creature of the universe i.e. Human.
Human is only such a creature living in the universe, who has the intelligence mind with a wider domains, which has ability to change the commands, according to the changing conditions as per the requirement of any situations.
As growing up the computer and technology, computer programmer and scientist think to prepare such an intelligent machine which can do any work as a human can do.
That’s why the Artificial Intelligence comes in the picture.
Definition of Artificial Intelligence ?
Artificial Intelligence is considered to design such an intelligent computer system or intelligent machine that exhibit the characteristics we associate with intelligence in human behavior like understanding language, learning, reasoning and solving problems.
In simple word, we can say that programmers, scientists and researchers are trying to develop such a machine having an electronic brain which capable to work very intelligently or show intelligent behavior like a human.
History of Artificial Intelligence
The study of Artificial Intelligence is one of the most oldest disciplines. The ability to create intelligent machines has intrigued humans since ancient times and made it possible for people for the first time to test models of intelligent machines after invention of computer. Intelligent beings first appeared in the Ancient Greek myths of Antiquity. The following is a quick look at some of the most important events in Artificial Intelligence.
|Year||History of Artificial Intelligence|
|1943||Evaluation of Artificial neurons: Warren McCullough and Walter Pitts proposed the first mathematic model of Artificial Neurons.|
|1949||Psychologist Donald O. Hebb proposed the Neuro Psychological Theory that connections between neurons become stronger. His theory is now known as Hebbian learning.|
|1950||Turing Machine: Alan Turing publishes, “Computing Machinery and Intelligence”, a method for determining if a machine is intelligent.|
|1952||Arthur Samuel develops a self learning program to play checkers.|
|1956||Birth of Artificial Intelligence: John McCarthy coins the term, “Artificial Intelligence” at a Dartmouth College in a Computer Conference|
|1958||John McCarthy develops the Lisp language, an AI programming language and publishes the paper “Programs with Common Sense”, at MIT.|
|1959||Allen Newell, Herbert Simon and J.C.Shaw develop a program namely General Problem Solver (GPS), designed to imitate human problem solving.|
|1964||Danny Bobrow shows that computers can understand natural language enough to solve algebra word programs at MIT.|
|1965||Joseph Weizenbaum builds ELIZA, an interactive program that carries on a dialogue in English on any topic at MIT.|
|1966||Joseph Weizenbaum created the first chatbot named as ELIZA at the MIT Artificial Intelligence Laboratory. ELIZA is an early natural language processing computer program as a method to show the superficiality of communication between human and machine.|
|1969||Shakey, a robot, combines locomotion, perception and problem solving at Standford Research Institute.|
|1972||The logic programming language PROLOG is created. The first Intelligence humanoid Robot was built in Japan named as WABOT-1|
|1974-1980||During this period, computer scientist dealt with difficulty of obtaining funding from the government for AI researches. This period is known as the “First AI Winter”.|
|1980||Digital Equipment Corporations develops R1 (also known as XCON), the first successful commercial Expert System.|
|1983||Danny Hillis co-founds Thinking Machines, the first company to produce massively parallel computers.|
|1985||The drawing program, Aaron, create by Harold Cohen, is demonstrated at AI conference.|
|1987-1993||During this period, again government stopped in funding for AI research as Expert Systems XCON proved too expensive but not producing efficient result. This period is known as the “Second AI Winter”.|
|1997||IBM Deep Blue first Computer beats a world chess champion Garry Kasparov in chess match.|
|2000||MIT displays Kismet, a robot with a face that expresses emotions.|
|2002||AI entered in Home for the first time in the form of Roomba, as a vacuum cleaner.|
|2005||STANLEY, a self driving car, wins the DARPA Grand challenge.|
|2008||Google makes breakthroughs in speech recognition and introduces the feature in its iPhone app.|
|2011||IBM’s Watson won the competition on Jeopardy, a quiz show and proved that it could understand natural language and can solve the complex questions quickly.|
|2012||Google launched an Android app “Google now”, which has feature to provide information to the user as a prediction.|
|2014||Chatbot “Eugene Goostman” won a competition “Turing Test”|
|2015||Amazon developed voice controlled intelligent personal assistant device Amazon Echo or “Alexa”.|
|2016||Google DeepMind’s AlphaGo defeats world champion Go player Lee Sedol.|